# Eachable1 type

## Direct parent types

- Eachable
Parent type of all types that have each() method Direct subtypes: 2

## Direct children types

- Arr
Array - ordered list of items accessed by zero-based index

- ArrIter
Arr (array) iterator.

- ArrLike
Parent type for user-defined types with array-like behaviour. Use in cases when you would like to inherit from built-in Arr. Inheriting from built-ins is not possible for now. Direct subtypes: 6

- Box
A box which might (FullBox) or might not (EmptyBox) contain a value. Box is somewhat similar to Arr of zero (EmptyBox) or exactly one (FullBox) element. This analogy helps understanding each() and filter() operation. Direct subtypes: 2

- ConstIter
Iterator that returns given value forever.

- FilterIter
EXPERIMENTAL! Do not use!

- FunIter
EXPERIMENTAL! Do not use!

- Int
Integer type. On 64 bit platforms it's a 61 bit signed integer

- MapIter
EXPERIMENTAL! Do not use!

- MultiMethod
MultiMethod, container for methods.

- NumRange
Numerical range

- RangeIter
Iterates over a Range

- ResDef
Abstract resource definition Direct subtypes: 2

- Set
Represents a set of items

- Str
String type. Contains sequential bytes.

- Table
Holds tabular data

## Methods

- +(a:Eachable1, b:Eachable1) Source: stdlib.ngs:925
Undocumented

- +(s:Str, a:Eachable1) Source: stdlib.ngs:4142
Prepend each line in a with s #### Returns

Type of ret is same as type of a#### Example

"a " + ["1", "2"] # ["a 1", "a 2"]

- +(a:Eachable1, s:Str) Source: stdlib.ngs:4152
Append s to each line in a #### Returns

Type of ret is same as type of a#### Example

["1", "2"] + " a" # ["1 a", "2 a"]

- =~(x:Eachable1, r:Repeat) Source: stdlib.ngs:560
Check that x is a repetition of r.pattern and it occurs r.count times #### Returns

Bool

- all(e:Eachable1, pattern:Any=method) Source: stdlib.ngs:2157
Check whether all elements in arr satisfy the given pattern. #### Parameters

e The items to check pattern Test function or anything else acceptable by (=~), defaults to Bool.constructors #### Returns

Bool#### Example

[1,2,3].all(X<10) # true [1,2,10].all(X>5) # false

- any(e:Eachable1, pattern:Any=method) Source: stdlib.ngs:2139
Check whether there is any element in e that satisfies the given pattern. #### Parameters

e The items to check pattern Test function or anything else acceptable by (=~), defaults to Bool.constructors #### Returns

Bool#### Example

[1,2,10].any(F(elt) elt > 5) # true [1,2,10].any(F(elt) elt > 15) # false

- Arr(something:Eachable1) Source: stdlib.ngs:2477
Convert Eachable1 (anything with "each" method that takes callback of one parameter) to an array #### Example

Arr(1..3) # [1,2] Arr(1...3) # [1,2,3]

- count(e:Eachable1, pattern:Any=method) Source: stdlib.ngs:2304
Count number of items that match the pattern. #### Parameters

e Items to look at pattern Test function or anything else acceptable by (=~), defaults to Bool.constructors #### Returns

Int#### Example

[1,2,3,11,12].count(X>10) # 2

- dflt(e:Eachable1, k:Any, v:Any) Source: stdlib.ngs:1560
Set a field on all elements if it's not already set #### Parameters

e Eachable1 with elements of type NormalTypeInstance or Hash #### Returns

e#### Example

my_items.dflt("source", "(unknown)")

- drop(e:Eachable1, pattern:Any)experimental Source: stdlib.ngs:770
EXPERIMENTAL! Do not use! Filters out items that match the pattern at the begginning of e. #### Example

[1,2,3,1,2].drop(X<3) # [3,1,2]

- duplicates(e:Eachable1, field_or_callback:Any) Source: stdlib.ngs:3209
Group the items from e and return groups of more than one element #### Returns

Arr of Arr

- each_chunk(e:Eachable1, n:Int, cb:Fun)experimental Source: stdlib.ngs:2777
Call cb with array of maximum length of n, repeatedely for all items of e. TODO: better doc, rename to each() to be consistent with each(Arr, Int, Fun)?

- each_idx_val(e:Eachable1, cb:Fun) Source: stdlib.ngs:2213
Iterates over elements of e, passing each in turn to cb along with index and args: cb(INDEX, ITEM) #### Returns

e#### Example

"abc".each_idx_val(F(idx, val) echo("Element #$idx equals to $val"))

- filter(e:Eachable1, pattern:Any=method) Source: stdlib.ngs:636
Filter e using pattern. #### Parameters

e Eachable1. WARNING: instances of same type as e must have empty constructor and push() method. pattern When item =~ pattern returns true, the item will appear in the resulting array. #### Returns

Of same type as e#### Example

(1...10).filter(F(num) num % 2 == 0) # Gives [2,4,6,8,10] (1...10).filter(X<5) # Gives [1,2,3,4]

- first(e:Eachable1, pattern:Any=method, default:Any=block) Source: stdlib.ngs:676
Find first element in e that matches the pattern. #### Parameters

pattern Test function or anything else acceptable by =~, defaults to Bool.constructors #### Returns

Either the element or the provided default if element was not found.#### Example

(10..20).first(F(x) x % 3 == 0) # 12 - first item divisible by 3 (10..20).first(F(x) x % 50 == 0, 1000) # 1000 [false, 0, null, "xyz", 100].first() # "xyz" [].first() # ElementNotFound exception

- flatten(e:Eachable1) Source: stdlib.ngs:2319
Flatten one level. #### Parameters

e Eachable with each element also Eachable #### Returns

Arr#### Example

[[1], [2,3]].flatten() # [1,2,3]

- get(e:Eachable1, field:Str) Source: stdlib.ngs:2047
Return array made of given field of each element of given Eachable1 where present #### Returns

Arr#### Example

[{"x": 1}, {"y": 2}].get("x") # [1] ``aws ec2 describe-instances``.Tags.get("role").uniq() # Returns Arr of Str with roles. Does not crash if some machines do not have "role" tag.

- get(e:Eachable1, field:Str, dflt:Any) Source: stdlib.ngs:2055
Return array made of given field of each element of given Eachable1 where present or default value where the field is not present. #### Returns

Arr#### Example

[{"x": 1}, {"y": 2}].get("x", null) # [1, null]

- group(e:Eachable1, cb:Fun) Source: stdlib.ngs:3196
Group items from e by key returned by cb #### Returns

Hash with Arr values#### Example

["ab", "ac", "ba", "bc", "bd"].group(F(x) x[0]) # {a=[ab,ac], b=[ba,bc,bd]}

- group(e:Eachable1, field:Str) Source: stdlib.ngs:3205
Group items from e by the given field #### Returns

Hash with Arr values#### Example

[{"id": 100, "a": 1}, {"id": 200, "a": 2}, {"id": 300, "a": 2}].group("a") # {1=[{id=100, a=1}], 2=[{id=200, a=2},{id=300, a=2}]}

- has_index(e:Eachable1, i:Int) Source: stdlib.ngs:950
Check whether Eachable1 has the given index: -len(e) <= i < len(e) #### Returns

Bool

- Hash(e:Eachable1, field:Str) Source: stdlib.ngs:3098
Create Hash with keys being the given field of elements and the values being corresponding elements. #### Returns

Hash#### Example

Hash([{'x': 1}, {'x': 2}], 'x') # {1: {'x': 1}, 2: {'x': 2}}

- Hash(e:Eachable1, cb:Fun) Source: stdlib.ngs:3109
Create a Hash from keys in Eachable1 using cb for values calculation #### Parameters

e Keys of the hash to build cb Function to be called with one key at a time. Should calculate a value for the given key. #### Returns

Hash#### Example

Hash([1,2], F(x) x*2) # {1: 2, 2: 4}

- Hash(e:Eachable1, key_field:Str, val_field:Str) Source: stdlib.ngs:3133
Create Hash from Arr of something that has key and value fields #### Parameters

e Eachable1 with all the keys and values key_field Name of the field holding the keys of newly created Hash val_field Name of the field holding the values of newly created Hash #### Returns

Hash#### Example

Hash([{"Name": "n1", "Value": "v1"},{"Name": "n2", "Value": "v2"}], "Name", "Value") # {"n1": "v1", "n2": "v2"}

- in(x:Any, e:Eachable1) Source: stdlib.ngs:896
Checks whether element x is in Eachable1 #### Parameters

x Needle e Haystack #### Returns

Bool#### Example

1 in [1,2,3].Iter() # true 10 in [1,2,3].Iter() # false

- indexes(e:Eachable1, pattern:Any=method) Source: stdlib.ngs:2389
Find all indexes of values that match the pattern #### Parameters

pattern Test function or anything else acceptable by (=~), defaults to Bool.constructors #### Returns

Arr of Int#### Example

[1,5,1,10].indexes(X>2) # [1,3]

- init(al:ArrLike, e:Eachable1) Source: stdlib.ngs:1000
Undocumented

- init(s:Set, e:Eachable1) Source: stdlib.ngs:1229
Convert array to set

- init(s:Stats, e:Eachable1) Source: stdlib.ngs:4312
Makes Stats, with each element in the array counted as if push()ed #### Example

Stats(['a', 'a', 'b']).Hash() # {'a': 2, 'b': 1} Stats("AABC").Hash() # {A=2, B=1, C=1}

- inspect(e:Eachable1) Source: stdlib.ngs:353
Inspect Eachable1 #### Returns

Lines

- JsonData(e:Eachable1) Source: stdlib.ngs:964
Convert Eachable1 into JSON compatible data structure - array

- map_idx_val(e:Eachable1, mapper:Fun) Source: stdlib.ngs:2235
Map an Eachable1 to an Arr (array) of values using mapper mapper is called as mapper(INDEX, ITEM) #### Returns

New Arr#### Example

echo("Array items: " + ArrLike().push(10).push(20).push(30).map_idx_val(F(idx, val) "[$idx]=$val").join(", ")) # Outputs: Array items: [0]=10, [1]=20, [2]=30

- mapo(e:Eachable1, mapper:Fun)experimental Source: stdlib.ngs:600
EXPERIMENTAL! Do not use! Map e to same type. Mnemonics: "map original" / "MAP to Original type". #### Parameters

e object of any type that has each(e, callback) implemented Eachable1. WARNING: instances of same type as e must have empty constructor and push() method. #### Returns

Of same type as e#### Example

Set([1,2]).mapo(X*2) # Set([2,4])

- max(e:Eachable1) Source: stdlib.ngs:2649
Find maximal element under (>)

- min(e:Eachable1) Source: stdlib.ngs:2647
Find minimal element under (<)

- none(e:Eachable1, pattern:Any=method) Source: stdlib.ngs:2176
Check whether there is no element in e that satisfies the given pattern. Exactly same as not(any(e, pattern)) . #### Parameters

e The items to check pattern Test function or anything else acceptable by (=~), defaults to Bool.constructors #### Returns

Bool#### Example

[0,1,2].none(X>2) # true [0,1,2].none(X<2) # false

- partition(something:Eachable1, pattern:Any=method) Source: stdlib.ngs:655
Partition elements in something according to the pattern into two arrays. First array contains all elements that match the pattern. The second array contains all elements that do not match the pattern. #### Parameters

something Eachable1 pattern Test function or anything else acceptable by (=~), defaults to Bool.constructors #### Returns

Array with two arrays in it#### Example

partition([1,10,2,20], X>=10) # [[10, 20], [1, 2]]

- pfilter(e:Eachable1, pattern:Any) Source: stdlib.ngs:4498
Parallel filter. Typcally should be used with "heavy" pattern such as SSH. #### Returns

Of same type as e#### Example

Set(1..10).pfilter(X>3) # <Set 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9>

- pfilter(e:Eachable1, threads:Int, pattern:Any) Source: stdlib.ngs:4506
Parallel filter. Typcally should be used with "heavy" pattern such as SSH. #### Returns

Of same type as e#### Example

Set(1..10).pfilter(2, X>3) # <Set 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9>

- pmap(e:Eachable1, mapper:Fun) Source: stdlib.ngs:4447
Parallel map. Runs mapper in threads. Each thread processes one element from the array but this might change in future (preserving the total number of calls to mapper and the order of results). Number of threads is limited to the lower of the two: processors * 100 or 1000. #### Returns

Arr, result of applying mapper to elements of e, preserving the order.#### Example

pages_texts = abs_pages_urls.pmap(F(url) `lynx -dump $url`)

- pmap(e:Eachable1, threads:Int, mapper:Fun) Source: stdlib.ngs:4468
Parallel map. Runs mapper in "threads" total threads. #### Parameters

e Eachable1 to be mapped threads number of threads to use mapper called with elements from e #### Returns

Arr, result of applying mapper to elements of e, preserving the order.#### Example

pages_texts = abs_pages_urls.pmap(F(url) `lynx -dump $url`)

- push_all(dst:Any, e:Eachable1) Source: stdlib.ngs:904
Push all elements of e into dst. #### Returns

dst

- reduce(something:Eachable1, start:Any, f:Fun) Source: stdlib.ngs:800
Combine items to a single value using the supplied binary function First f is applied to start and the first element of something then on each step f is applied to previous result and next element of something. #### Parameters

something object of any type that has each(something, callback) implemented start First argument of f, for the first call of f f The combining function #### Example

F sum(something) something.reduce(0, (+))

- reduce(e:Eachable1, f:Fun) Source: stdlib.ngs:819
Combine items to a single value using the supplied binary function First f is applied to the first two elements of e then on each step f is applied to previous result and next element of e. Throws EmptyEachableFail if e has no elements. If e has only one element, that element is returned. #### Parameters

e object of any type that has each(e, callback) implemented f The combining function #### Example

F sum(e) e.reduce((+))

- reject(something:Eachable1, pattern:Any=method) Source: stdlib.ngs:749
Filter something to an Arr (array) of values matcing rge pattern #### Parameters

something object of any type that has each(something, callback) implemented pattern Decision function to be called with each item as first argument. When item matches the pattern, the item will not appear in the resulting array #### Returns

Arr#### Example

(1...10).reject(F(num) num % 2 == 0) # Gives [1,3,5,7,9] (1...10).reject(X<5) # Gives [5,6,7,8,9,10]

- replace(something:Eachable1, src:Any, dst:Any) Source: stdlib.ngs:787
Replace all occurrences of src with dst TODO: Return same type, not Arr #### Parameters

something object of any type that has each(something, callback) implemented #### Returns

Arr#### Example

["ssh", "IP", "w"].replace("IP", "10.0.0.100") # ['ssh','10.0.0.100','w']

- split(e:Eachable1, delim:Any) Source: stdlib.ngs:2757
Split e into arrays #### Returns

Arr of Arr#### Example

[1, "a", 2, 3, "a", 4].split("a") # [[1], [2, 3], [4]]

- sum(something:Eachable1) Source: stdlib.ngs:2419
Calculate sum of the elements #### Example

[1,2,3].sum() # 6

- take(something:Eachable1, pattern:Any)experimental Source: stdlib.ngs:754
EXPERIMENTAL! Do not use! #### Example

[1,2,3,1,2].take(X<3) # [1,2]

- the_one(e:Eachable1, pattern:Any=method, body:Fun=method, found_more:Fun=method, found_none:Fun=method) Source: stdlib.ngs:698
Find the only element that matches the pattern and execute given code with the value #### Parameters

body The code to execute when exactly one element that matches the pattern was found. Executed with the found value. It's value will be returned as result of the_one(). found_more The code to execute when more than one element matches the pattern. It's value will be returned as result of the_one(). Defaults to function returning null. found_none The code to execute when none of the elements match the pattern. It's value will be returned as result of the_one(). Defaults to function returning null. #### Returns

Result of running on of the following: body, found_more, found_none#### Example

F name(dn:MethodDocNode) { dn.children.the_one(MethodNameDocNode).text[0] }

- the_one(e:Eachable1, pattern:Any=method) Source: stdlib.ngs:724
Throws ElementNotFound exception if there are no elements that match the pattern or if there is more than one element that matches the pattern. #### Parameters

pattern defaults to Any, allowing my_arr.the_one() #### Returns

The only element that matches the pattern.

- uniq(e:Eachable1, cb:Fun=method) Source: stdlib.ngs:2335
Return unique values. Warning: uses Hash so comparison is not using == but a built-in hash keys comparison. #### Returns

Of same type as e#### Example

[1,2,2,3,4,4].uniq() # [1,2,3,4] [{"a": 1, "z": 10}, {"a": 1, "z": 20}, {"a": 2, "z": 30}].uniq(X.a) # [{"a": 1, "z": 10}, {"a": 2, "z": 30}]

- uniq(e:Eachable1, field:Str) Source: stdlib.ngs:2356
Return unique values. Warning: uses Hash so comparison is not using == but a built-in hash keys comparison. #### Returns

Of same type as e#### Example

[{"id": 100, "a": 1}, {"id": 200, "a": 2}, {"id": 300, "a": 2}].uniq("a") # [{"id": 100, "a": 1}, {"id": 200, "a": 2}]

- without(e:Eachable1, without_elt:Any) Source: stdlib.ngs:2282
Filter out all occurrences of specific value #### Parameters

e items to filter without_elt The value to filter out #### Returns

Arr#### Example

[1,2,3,2].without(2) # [1,3]