# Eachable1 type

## Direct parent types

- Eachable
Parent type of all types that have each() method Direct subtypes: 2

## Direct children types

- Arr
Array - ordered list of items accessed by zero-based index

- ArrIter
Arr (array) iterator.

- ArrLike
Parent type for user-defined types with array-like behaviour. Use in cases when you would like to inherit from built-in Arr. Inheriting from built-ins is not possible for now. Direct subtypes: 6

- Box
A box which might (FullBox) or might not (EmptyBox) contain a value. Box is somewhat similar to Arr of zero (EmptyBox) or exactly one (FullBox) element. This analogy helps understanding each() and filter() operation. Direct subtypes: 2

- ConstIter
Iterator that returns given value forever.

- FilterIter
EXPERIMENTAL! Do not use!

- FunIter
EXPERIMENTAL! Do not use!

- Int
Integer type. On 64 bit platforms it's a 61 bit signed integer

- MapIter
EXPERIMENTAL! Do not use!

- MultiMethod
MultiMethod, container for methods.

- NumRange
Numerical range

- RangeIter
Iterates over a Range

- ResDef
Abstract resource definition Direct subtypes: 2

- Set
Represents a set of items

- Str
String type. Contains sequential bytes.

- Table
Holds tabular data

## Methods

- +(a:Eachable1, b:Eachable1) Source: stdlib.ngs:745
Undocumented

- +(s:Str, a:Eachable1) Source: stdlib.ngs:3945
Prepend each line in a with s #### Returns

Type of ret is same as type of a#### Example

"a " + ["1", "2"] # ["a 1", "a 2"]

- +(a:Eachable1, s:Str) Source: stdlib.ngs:3955
Append s to each line in a #### Returns

Type of ret is same as type of a#### Example

["1", "2"] + " a" # ["1 a", "2 a"]

- any(e:Eachable1, predicate:Any=method) Source: stdlib.ngs:1995
Check whether there is any element in e that satisfies the given predicate. #### Parameters

e The items to check predicate Test function or anything else acceptable by Pred(), defaults to identity #### Returns

Bool#### Example

[1,2,10].any(F(elt) elt > 5) # true [1,2,10].any(F(elt) elt > 15) # false

- Arr(something:Eachable1) Source: stdlib.ngs:2319
Convert Eachable1 (anything with "each" method that takes callback of one parameter) to an array #### Example

Arr(1..3) # [1,2] Arr(1...3) # [1,2,3]

- count(e:Eachable1, predicate:Any=method) Source: stdlib.ngs:2163
Count number of items that satisfy the predicate. #### Parameters

e Items to look at predicate Test function or anything else acceptable by Pred(), defaults to identity #### Returns

Int#### Example

[1,2,3,11,12].count(X>10) # 2

- dflt(e:Eachable1, k:Any, v:Any) Source: stdlib.ngs:1417
Set a field on all elements if it's not already set #### Parameters

e Eachable1 with elements of type NormalTypeInstance or Hash #### Returns

e#### Example

my_items.dflt("source", "(unknown)")

- drop(e:Eachable1, predicate:Any)experimental Source: stdlib.ngs:593
EXPERIMENTAL! Do not use! Filters out items that satisfy predicate at the begginning of e. #### Example

[1,2,3,1,2].drop(X<3) # [3,1,2]

- each_chunk(e:Eachable1, n:Int, cb:Fun)experimental Source: stdlib.ngs:2619
Call cb with array of maximum length of n, repeatedely for all items of e. TODO: better doc, rename to each() to be consistent with each(Arr, Int, Fun)?

- each_idx_val(e:Eachable1, cb:Fun) Source: stdlib.ngs:2072
Iterates over elements of e, passing each in turn to cb along with index and args: cb(INDEX, ITEM) #### Returns

e#### Example

"abc".each_idx_val(F(idx, val) echo("Element #$idx equals to $val"))

- filter(e:Eachable1, predicate:Any=method) Source: stdlib.ngs:451
Filter e using predicate. #### Parameters

e Eachable1. WARNING: instances of same type as e must have empty constructor and push() method. predicate Decision function to be called with each item as first argument. When predicate(item) returns true, the item will appear in the resulting array. #### Returns

Of same type as e#### Example

(1...10).filter(F(num) num % 2 == 0) # Gives [2,4,6,8,10] (1...10).filter(X<5) # Gives [1,2,3,4], predicate called as predicate(item, 5)

- first(e:Eachable1, predicate:Any=method, default:Any=block) Source: stdlib.ngs:491
Find first element in e that satisfies the predicate. #### Parameters

predicate Test function or anything else acceptable by Pred(), defaults to identity #### Returns

Either the element or the provided default if element was not found.#### Example

(10..20).first(F(x) x % 3 == 0) # 12 - first item divisible by 3 (10..20).first(F(x) x % 50 == 0, 1000) # 1000 [false, 0, null, "xyz", 100].first() # "xyz" [].first() # ElementNotFound exception

- flatten(e:Eachable1) Source: stdlib.ngs:2179
Flatten one level. #### Parameters

e Eachable with each element also Eachable #### Returns

Arr#### Example

[[1], [2,3]].flatten() # [1,2,3]

- get(e:Eachable1, field:Str) Source: stdlib.ngs:1903
Return array made of given field of each element of given Eachable1 where present #### Returns

Arr#### Example

[{"x": 1}, {"y": 2}].get("x") # [1] ``aws ec2 describe-instances``.Tags.get("role").uniq() # Returns Arr of Str with roles. Does not crash if some machines do not have "role" tag.

- get(e:Eachable1, field:Str, dflt:Any) Source: stdlib.ngs:1911
Return array made of given field of each element of given Eachable1 where present or default value where the field is not present. #### Returns

Arr#### Example

[{"x": 1}, {"y": 2}].get("x", null) # [1, null]

- group(e:Eachable1, cb:Fun) Source: stdlib.ngs:3011
Group items from e by key returned by cb #### Returns

Hash with Arr values#### Example

["ab", "ac", "ba", "bc", "bd"].group(F(x) x[0]) # {a=[ab,ac], b=[ba,bc,bd]}

- has_index(e:Eachable1, i:Int) Source: stdlib.ngs:770
Check whether Eachable1 has the given index: -len(e) <= i < len(e) #### Returns

Bool

- Hash(e:Eachable1, field:Str) Source: stdlib.ngs:2913
Create Hash with keys being the given field of elements and the values being corresponding elements. #### Returns

Hash#### Example

Hash([{'x': 1}, {'x': 2}], 'x') # {1: {'x': 1}, 2: {'x': 2}}

- Hash(e:Eachable1, cb:Fun) Source: stdlib.ngs:2924
Create a Hash from keys in Eachable1 using cb for values calculation #### Parameters

e Keys of the hash to build cb Function to be called with one key at a time. Should calculate a value for the given key. #### Returns

Hash#### Example

Hash([1,2], F(x) x*2) # {1: 2, 2: 4}

- Hash(e:Eachable1, key_field:Str, val_field:Str) Source: stdlib.ngs:2948
Create Hash from Arr of something that has key and value fields #### Parameters

e Eachable1 with all the keys and values key_field Name of the field holding the keys of newly created Hash val_field Name of the field holding the values of newly created Hash #### Returns

Hash#### Example

Hash([{"Name": "n1", "Value": "v1"},{"Name": "n2", "Value": "v2"}], "Name", "Value") # {"n1": "v1", "n2": "v2"}

- in(x:Any, e:Eachable1) Source: stdlib.ngs:715
Checks whether element x is in Eachable1 #### Parameters

x Needle e Haystack #### Returns

Bool#### Example

1 in [1,2,3].Iter() # true 10 in [1,2,3].Iter() # false

- indexes(e:Eachable1, predicate:Any=method) Source: stdlib.ngs:2230
Find all indexes of values that satisfy the predicate #### Parameters

predicate Test function or anything else acceptable by Pred(), defaults to identity #### Returns

Arr of Int#### Example

[1,5,1,10].indexes(X>2) # [1,3]

- init(al:ArrLike, e:Eachable1) Source: stdlib.ngs:823
Undocumented

- init(s:Set, e:Eachable1) Source: stdlib.ngs:1056
Convert array to set

- init(s:Stats, e:Eachable1) Source: stdlib.ngs:4115
Makes Stats, with each element in the array counted as if push()ed #### Example

Stats(['a', 'a', 'b']).Hash() # {'a': 2, 'b': 1} Stats("AABC").Hash() # {A=2, B=1, C=1}

- inspect(e:Eachable1) Source: stdlib.ngs:6575
Inspect Eachable1 #### Returns

Lines

- JsonData(e:Eachable1) Source: stdlib.ngs:784
Convert Eachable1 into JSON compatible data structure - array

- map_idx_val(e:Eachable1, mapper:Fun) Source: stdlib.ngs:2094
Map an Eachable1 to an Arr (array) of values using mapper mapper is called as mapper(INDEX, ITEM) #### Returns

New Arr#### Example

echo("Array items: " + ArrLike().push(10).push(20).push(30).map_idx_val(F(idx, val) "[$idx]=$val").join(", ")) # Outputs: Array items: [0]=10, [1]=20, [2]=30

- mapo(e:Eachable1, mapper:Fun)experimental Source: stdlib.ngs:413
EXPERIMENTAL! Do not use! Map e to same type. Mnemonics: "map original" / "MAP to Original type". #### Parameters

e object of any type that has each(e, callback) implemented Eachable1. WARNING: instances of same type as e must have empty constructor and push() method. #### Returns

Of same type as e#### Example

Set([1,2]).mapo(X*2) # Set([2,4])

- max(e:Eachable1) Source: stdlib.ngs:2491
Find maximal element under (>)

- min(e:Eachable1) Source: stdlib.ngs:2489
Find minimal element under (<)

- none(e:Eachable1, predicate:Any=method) Source: stdlib.ngs:2035
Check that there is no element in e that satisfies the given predicate. Exactly same as not(any(e, predicate)) . #### Parameters

e The items to check predicate Test function or anything else acceptable by Pred(), defaults to identity #### Returns

Bool#### Example

[0,1,2].none(X>2) # true [0,1,2].none(X<2) # false

- partition(something:Eachable1, predicate:Any) Source: stdlib.ngs:470
Partition elements in something according to the predicate into two arrays. First array contains all elements for which predicate(elt) is true and the second array contains all elements for which predicate(elt) is false. #### Parameters

something Eachable1 #### Returns

Array with two arrays in it#### Example

partition([1,10,2,20], X>=10) # [[10, 20], [1, 2]]

- pfilter(e:Eachable1, predicate:Any) Source: stdlib.ngs:4290
Parallel filter. Typcally should be used with "heavy" predicate such as SSH. #### Returns

Of same type as e#### Example

Set(1..10).pfilter(X>3) # <Set 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9>

- pfilter(e:Eachable1, threads:Int, predicate:Any) Source: stdlib.ngs:4298
Parallel filter. Typcally should be used with "heavy" predicate such as SSH. #### Returns

Of same type as e#### Example

Set(1..10).pfilter(2, X>3) # <Set 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9>

- pmap(e:Eachable1, mapper:Fun) Source: stdlib.ngs:4247
Parallel map. Runs mapper in threads. Each thread processes one element from the array but this might change in future (preserving the total number of calls to mapper and the order of results). #### Returns

Arr, result of applying mapper to elements of e, preserving the order.#### Example

pages_texts = abs_pages_urls.pmap(F(url) `lynx -dump $url`)

- pmap(e:Eachable1, threads:Int, mapper:Fun) Source: stdlib.ngs:4260
Parallel map. Runs mapper in "threads" total threads. #### Parameters

e Eachable1 to be mapped threads number of threads to use mapper called with elements from e #### Returns

Arr, result of applying mapper to elements of e, preserving the order.#### Example

pages_texts = abs_pages_urls.pmap(F(url) `lynx -dump $url`)

- push_all(dst:Any, e:Eachable1) Source: stdlib.ngs:723
Push all elements of e into dst. #### Returns

dst

- reduce(something:Eachable1, start:Any, f:Fun) Source: stdlib.ngs:624
Combine items to a single value using the supplied binary function First f is applied to start and the first element of something then on each step f is applied to previous result and next element of something. #### Parameters

something object of any type that has each(something, callback) implemented start First argument of f, for the first call of f f The combining function #### Example

F sum(something) something.reduce(0, (+))

- reduce(e:Eachable1, f:Fun) Source: stdlib.ngs:643
Combine items to a single value using the supplied binary function First f is applied to the first two elements of e then on each step f is applied to previous result and next element of e. Throws EmptyEachableFail if e has no elements. If e has only one element, that element is returned. #### Parameters

e object of any type that has each(e, callback) implemented f The combining function #### Example

F sum(e) e.reduce((+))

- replace(something:Eachable1, src:Any, dst:Any) Source: stdlib.ngs:611
Replace all occurrences of src with dst TODO: Return same type, not Arr #### Parameters

something object of any type that has each(something, callback) implemented #### Returns

Arr#### Example

["ssh", "IP", "w"].replace("IP", "10.0.0.100") # ['ssh','10.0.0.100','w']

- split(e:Eachable1, delim:Any) Source: stdlib.ngs:2599
Split e into arrays #### Returns

Arr of Arr#### Example

[1, "a", 2, 3, "a", 4].split("a") # [[1], [2, 3], [4]]

- sum(something:Eachable1) Source: stdlib.ngs:2261
Calculate sum of the elements #### Example

[1,2,3].sum() # 6

- take(something:Eachable1, predicate:Any)experimental Source: stdlib.ngs:576
EXPERIMENTAL! Do not use! #### Example

[1,2,3,1,2].take(X<3) # [1,2]

- the_one(e:Eachable1, predicate:Any=method, body:Fun=method, found_more:Fun=method, found_none:Fun=method) Source: stdlib.ngs:514
Find the only element that satisfies the predicate and execute given code with the value #### Parameters

body The code to execute when exactly one element that satisfies the predicate was found. Executed with the found value. It's value will be returned as result of the_one(). found_more The code to execute when more than one element satisfies the predicate. It's value will be returned as result of the_one(). Defaults to function returning null. found_none The code to execute when none of the elements satisfy the predicate. It's value will be returned as result of the_one(). Defaults to function returning null. #### Returns

Result of running on of the following: body, found_more, found_none#### Example

F name(dn:MethodDocNode) { dn.children.the_one(MethodNameDocNode).text[0] }

- the_one(e:Eachable1, predicate:Any=method) Source: stdlib.ngs:541
Throws ElementNotFound exception if there are no elements that satisfy the predicate or if there is more than one element that satisfies the predicate. #### Parameters

predicate defaults to {true}, allowing my_arr.the_one() #### Returns

The only element that satisfies the predicate.

- without(e:Eachable1, without_elt:Any) Source: stdlib.ngs:2141
Filter out all occurrences of specific value #### Parameters

e items to filter without_elt The value to filter out #### Returns

Arr#### Example

[1,2,3,2].without(2) # [1,3]